Imagine

Generic Models

Process Models

  • Fundamental process concepts; working principles of common process equipment

  • Equipment performance under different operating conditions

  • Hands-on practice on operations such as start-up, shutdown, troubleshooting etc.

  • Practice safe operation of the unit; prepare for handling emergencies

Experience in Real-time

  • Effects of changes in operating conditions such as flow, pressure, temperature, etc.

  • Effects of changes in boundary conditions such as supply & discharge pressure, supply temperature, feed composition, etc.

  • Performance of control systems; functioning of different control schemes such as antisurge control, minimum flow control, overpressure control, etc.

  • Common problems and the recovery actions

Product Sample List

Separation System

  • Concepts of vapor-liquid separation; bubble and dew points

  • Distillation concepts; conditions affecting separation quality and energy consumption

  • Common problems such as transmitter drift, transmitter failure, valve failure, etc.

Flash Drum

  • Vertical flash drum; drum safety valve with bypass

  • Two configurations, with and without feed exchanger

  • Feed: mixture of light hydrocarbons

  • Top product: light vapor; bottom product: heavy liquid

Distillation Column

  • Column with 40 Trays; a debutanizer

  • Overhead condenser (total condenser)

  • Reflux drum: safety valve with bypass, reflux pump

  • Reboiler: superheated LP steam heating medium; tray temperature control

  • Flooded condenser, variable tube flooding extent, column top pressure control

  • Feed: C4s and C5s; top product: C4 rich stream; bottom product: C5 rich stream

  • Tray problems such as plugging & weeping and column problems such as flooding

Reactor System

  • Reaction kinetics; rate of reaction, heat of reaction, conversion, etc.

  • Factors affecting reactions such as temperature, pressure, reactant concentration or partial pressure, residence time, etc.

Fixed Bed Reactor

  • Single-bed with nickel catalyst

  • Gas-phase reaction: methanation; purification of syngas for removal of carbon oxides

  • Carbon oxides converted to methane through hydrogenation; equilibrium reaction; exothermic

Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR)

  • Jacketed reactor with agitator; cooling water in jacket

  • Liquid-phase reaction, hydrolysis of acetic anhydride to acetic acid

  • First order exothermic reaction

Batch Reactor

  • Jacketed reactor with agitator; cooling water in jacket

  • Batch addition of feed; withdrawal of product upon reaction completion

  • Liquid-phase reaction, aromatic nitration with nitric acid; sulfuric acid catalyst

  • First order exothermic reaction; presence of excess acid

Mixing Tank with pH Control

  • Treating tank with agitator

  • Wastewater pH neutralization; continuous process

  • Acid & caustic reagent dosing pumps; tank outlet pH control

  • Non-linear concentration-pH relation

Fluid Transfer Equipment

  • Working principles; performance under different process conditions

  • Safety in operation; common problems such as supply failure, driver failure, loss of load, higher discharge or exhaust pressure, etc., and their recovery

Centrifugal Compressor

  • Steam turbine driven centrifugal compressor

  • Suction and discharge knockout drums

  • Antisurge control; performance under load and pressure changes

Reciprocating Compressor

  • Motor driven reciprocating compressor

  • Three stages with inter-stage cooling; high pressure operation

  • Suction, inter-stage and discharge knockout drums

  • Capacity control with unloaders; total flow control with spillback

Steam Turbine with Pump

  • Single-stage steam turbine

  • MP steam, polytropic expansion to low pressure

  • Governor / turbine speed control

  • Variable turbine exhaust pressure and user load

Heat Exchangers

  • Heat transfer concepts and equipment dynamics

  • Performance under different operating conditions such as flow, temperature & composition

  • Common problems such as fouling, tube plugging, tube leak, and their recovery

Process Exchanger

  • Shell & tube exchangers with counter-current flow

  • Two exchangers with cold-side in series and hot-side in parallel

  • Two configurations: with and without, temperature control with exchanger bypass

Air Cooler

  • Single-pass exchanger; cross-flow

  • Three motor-driven fans; pitch control

Condenser

  • Water-cooled partial condenser

  • Single-pass counter-current flow; shell-side condensation

  • Vapor and liquid draws from reflux drum; drum pressure and level control

Thermosiphon Reboiler

Vaporizer

  • Kettle type exchanger with submerged tube-bundle

  • Hot gas as heating medium

  • Shell-side boiling, level based heat transfer

Fired Heaters

  • Performance under different operating conditions such as pass flow & temperature, fuel gas composition, and arch pressure

  • Practice safe operation; prepare for emergencies

  • Common problems such as partial & incomplete combustion, coil fouling, coil leak, coil rupture, and their recovery

Natural Draft Furnace

  • Radiation, convection and heat recovery sections

  • Two-pass process coils; individual pass flow control

  • Stack damper; arch pressure control; flue gas oxygen and combustibles monitoring

  • Four burners with individual burner operation; primary & secondary air registers

Balanced Draft Furnace

  • Radiation, convection and heat recovery sections

  • Two-pass process coils; individual pass flow control

  • Forced and Induced draft fans; air preheater

  • Stack damper; arch pressure control; flue gas oxygen and combustibles monitoring

  • Four burners with individual burner operation; secondary air registers

Basic Process Control

  • Fundamental concepts of basic controls and their functioning

  • Merits / performance of a control scheme and comparisons with other schemes

Feed Forward Control

  • Intermediate storage tank

  • Tank level control; water system

  • Tank Inlet, flow controlled; feed forward component

  • Tank outlet, level controlled (level to flow cascade); feedback component

Ratio Control

Override Control

Split Range Control